IMFAZWE kaMLANJENI

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Imfazwe ka Mlanjeni (eyoMqungu/January 1850- January 1853) nguThemba Ngada

INGCOMBOLO

Sakukhumbula ke bafundi ukuba ukungena kwabamhlophe kweli kuqale kunxweme lwaseKapa. Bahlasela ke behamba besidla imihlaba yabantu nezizwe zooNoqhakancu naleyo yayisele igonyanyelwe ngamabhulu (wona kaloku afike kwango 1652) bebhuqisa bebhubhisa betshabalalisa oko bangakufuniyo berhwaphiliza mihlaba, zinkomo, mahashe bedlwengula bafazi besenza abantu amakhoboka okusebenzela bona kumhlaba abawutsotsileyo.

Ukusukela kulomlambo kuthiwa yiGamtoos eJeffreys Bay yalemihla, ukuya eSunday’s River eColchester yangoku kwalandela iBushman’s river, kweza iNxuba (Great Fish river) neXesi (Keiskama River) ukuya kuthi gaa ngeNciba (Kei River), oko besidla imihlaba yabantu beshenxisa imida ngobusuku bezisikela bezicandela ngokwalemilambo de kwacaca ukuba iinkosi zethu mazilwe, singaziboni sesiyokuphoswa elwandle kuhleli amagwangqa emihlabeni yoobawo. Amangcwaba abo egquba iimpungutye sikhona.

AmaGqunukwebe wona awulanda umhlaba wawo ogugutha unxweme lolwandlekazi lwamaNdiya olusemazantsi-mpuma, ukusukela ngaphaya kwaseMnyameni (Alexandria) apho wabulawa khona uNkosi Chungwa uyise kaPhatho Ahh!! Zwelandile, uyise kaDilima noKama Ahh!! Mbangobuso, uyise kaMani  noKobe uyise kaKatikati. Nalapho wayexheshwe esuswa kumlambo iBrak eMosselbaai.

Unanamhla amaGqunukhwebe asenentetho ethi xa eqinisekile ngento: Ndikufungis’uChungwa efel’ eMnyameni. (Yekela 1988).

Ayakuthanda ke ukukhuza amaGqunukhwebe kuba naxa engazi kuyenza into okanye ephikisana nayo kuba ingaphesheya komthetho athi: UNotshe efele eNgcamngeni!, kuseXesi ke kuloo lali.

Nale ntetho yamaXhosa xa ubani egagatheka kuvele nelomhlathi onwabile unkabi kuthiwe: Uxhelelwe eXhukwane! Yenye yelali zaseXesi naleyo. Iqhalo elithi: UHili uphumile ezingcongolweni, lithetha ukuba kuye kondlulwa kwabhentsiswa oko bekufihlwa. UHili ke sisilo esibumnturha esinemilingo esivela kwiintsomi zomGqunukhwebekazi wakudala.

Bakukuchubela ke isikhwebu eside abadala ngothotho lweemfazwe namadabi aliwe kulo jingi qhiwu kuhluthwana ngomhlaba ngamangesi namabhulu kunye nezi ziphakathi kwamaXhosa-Rharhabe namangesi. Yikumkani uRharhabe, athi uMqhayi ngaye:

“Hlungulu laphat’isqwayi

NguNtsinga kaNomagwayi

Ubutsholo bentonga,

Uzamazamis’ilizwe

 

Lide lizamazame,

Usibala-mdaka

Singe siya khona

Mhla singayiyo khona;

 

Size singe asiyi

Kanti kumhla siyayo,

Sambatha zimfutshane,

Kanti zomlingana,

Kub’ezinkul’esithi

Zimfihlel’amadolo.

Hlungulu laphath’isiqwayi

Kanti liyazingca

 

Kwezinye iintaka.

Hamham kaSitsheketshe

Into yasekunene kukaPhalo.”

Eyasikelwa isahlulo sesibini somhlaba kayise ukumkani uPhalo, ikumkani yokugqibela ukuphatha isizwe samaXhosa esimanyeneyo. Izokubhubhela apha kumneno Nciba kwesikaRharhabe ikumkani leyo kwelinye lamabhotwe ayo eZeleni yabe imshiye ephethe isaphila uGcaleka kwesakhe isiqingatha.

Kanti yenzeka njani le nto? Thoba ke sikutyele, ndifuna ukuthi yiza nendlebe size neendaba! Kaloku ukumkani wazibona eneendlunkulu ezimbini endaweni yokuba nendlunkulu ekhohlo, ze abe nekunene okanye indlu encinci. Ngabafazi ke aba ndithetha ngabo lawundini. Iinkosi kunye namadoda onke ayethatha isithembu okanye abafazi abaninzi phambi kokuba inyevulelwe ngamagqobhoka loo nkqubo.

Indlunkulu ibiba ngulo mfazi uzakuzala indlalifa okanye ikumkani elandelayo kuba kwayena ethathwe kwelinye ikomkhulu engeyontombi nje kaNantsi kodwa eyinkosazana. Abanye kuba bengenagazi limhlophe, elobukhosi ke ukutsho, bebengenabango labundlalifa.

Kwa ukwakhiwa kwezi zindlu zokuhlala apha komkhulu (Nkandla!) kudweliswe kwangokuzana kwabo, phakathi yindlu kamhlekazi, ekhohlo yiNdlunkulu ekunene yiNdlu encinane, ngaphaya kwazo kukho ezinye izindlu ezinamagama azo, iQadi leNdlunkulu, iQadi lasekunene, iXhiba leNdlunkulu, iXhiba lasekunene, uMsengi, noMtshayelo.

Kwenzekile ke emaTshaweni ikomkhulu lamaXhosa elalimi eThongwana apha phezu komlambo iGcuwa, kwazekwa inkosazana yabaThembu nenkosazana yamaMpondo omabini azibula ngamaduna uRharhabe kuqala kuze uGcaleka.

Lidabi okanye yimfazwe enkulu phakathi kwezizwe eyayiyakuqhambuka xa bekunokuthathwa isigqibo enkundleni sokuba makuhliselwe omnye waba bafazi abe ngomncinci ibiyakuba sisithuko kwisizwe avela kuso. Ingakumbi befike ngemini enye komkhulu balotyolwa ngekhulu leenkomo emnye kubo ngokulinganayo.

Yaphela ingunkinkinki wesintshompothi sentsumantsumane intsinda-badala isishiqi sendaba yakomkhulu. Eyadinga inkonde eyayiliphakathi likaTshiwo uMajeke uMqwambi owayokulandwa eNqabarha, uhambo lwensuku ezimbini. Isigwebo sakhe sadala indlu entsha le kuthiwa kukunene esithi asiyondlu incinci leyo “kuba esona sandla sinamandla sesokunene.”

Endingaziyo nokuba ke ukumkani wayezama ukusompa le ngxuba kaxaka okanye wayezigqibele wabeka uGcaleka esihlalweni sakhe esaphila, nalo ingcwaba lakhe eNgxingxolo eQumrha, apho wazikhethela khona ukuma ikomkhulu.

Ngokulindelekileyo uRharhabe, owayengaphambili ngeminyaka yokuzalwa, wangena ehlathini wabuya nomkhosi ozokuqethula uGcaleka ukuze athathe isihlalo njengokumkani wamaXhosa. Ukunqanda lo mbhodamo uRharhabe wagxothelwa nganeno apha komlambo iNciba, wafika apha waziginyela izizwana ebezilapho zamaTshawe imiDange, amaNtinde, amaGwali, amaHleke, amaMbalu kunye nezingezo zamaTshawe amaQhakancu namaGqunukhwebe ezakhela obakhe ukukumkani. Ukanti ke incwadi kaElliott, ngomlomo weBali lamaCiskei 1981, yona ithi nguGcaleka owahlasela uyise emhlutha ubukumkani esaphila wakhuselwa nguRharhabe uPhalo yiyo nalento eze kuma eZeleni elandela uRharhabe efuna igwiba okanye ukhuselo lwakhe esoyika uGcaleka.

Zingangeentwala kubaThembu ke iingcaciso zokuqhawukana phakathi nokucandeka kubini kobukumkani bamaXhosa phakathi kukaGcaleka noRharhabe, mna ndininike nje elingene mna, zifundele ezinye ndizakukupha uludwe lwemibele endinxunxuthe kuyo ukwakha le mvaba phaya ekupheleni.

Umzekelo, mhla ngetyala lokuhluthwa kobukumkani bamaRharhabe ngurhulumente othi ungowenkululeko, kwaphikisana u-Nkosi Advocate Siqithi Island Maqoma nobawo uMda Mda kwangale nkalo bebeka ezabo izibakala ezifuze le mibengo niyisikelwa apha ngentla.

Nazi iindawo esivumelana kuzo: unyaka ka1700 ubalulekile kule ngxoxo, okwesibini umlambo iNciba ubungazange ubonwe njengomda ngamaXhosa de impambano yenyuka ngodonga phakathi kukaSebe noMathanzima ukuze kude kufuneke incwadi yokundwendwela xa uzakuwuwela.

Okwesithathu akuzange kubekho kumkani yamaGcaleka enyanzelisa eyamaRharhabe ukuba mayikhahlele kuyo ingazange iye nakurhulumente lowo ithi ecela ukugwetyelwa kwimbambano yayo noRharhabe.

Okwesine, ukuba ungena endlini kuhleli lamadoda mabini ubulise  ubuze impilo uRharhabe uzakukhangela kuGcaleka athi “phendula kumkani”, aphendule omnye athi “thetha ngokwakho mkhuluwa uyamlibazisa lo mnene”.

Okwesihlanu, inkosi ibekwa esihlalweni yikumkani yayo ekhonza ekhahlela kuyo yambathiswe yiyo ingubo yobukhosi, kodwa ikumkani yambathiswa yenye ikumkani.

AmaXhosa ke akazisokolisi oko kwangoko akayi kude. Ikumkani yamaGcaleka ibekwa yambathiswe yeyamaRharhabe, neyamaRharhabe ngokunjalo. Asikho isizathu sokuba izizwe zikaPhalo zisusane ngale ndawo.

Hayi masiphume kwiingxoxo zabakhulu sibuyele emxholweni, kodwa ndiyathemba ukuba sonke sindawonye ngoku, siyazazi ukuba sithetha ngowuphi na umhlaba. Ewe uchan’uCwethe ngotolo! Sikulo umfunxamfunxa ligazi lamagorha, amakroti, amakhalipha amafa naNkosi.

Apha ke ekuphangweni kwawo uphele ingumhlatyana ophakathi komlambo iNxuba neNciba, ajikajikile ke amagama awo ngenxa yesihelegu sokudlwengulwa kwawo ngoondlebe zikhany’ilanga. Ukhe wangumda kwathiwa yi Koloni: No Man’s Land, kwaRharhabe, kwaNgqika/Gaika, Cafferland, British Kaffiraria, Queen Adelaide Province, the Cape of Good Hope Eastern Frontier, the Border Region, Ciskei, sisiqingatha seMpuma-Kapa. Ndiyathemba kuthe “qabu uNoqolomba efile nje!”

INTSHAYELELO

Zilithoba ke iimfazwe eziliwe phakathi kwamaXhosa namangesi, singazibalanga ke ezi ziliwe ngabamhlophe bodwa emhlabeni wethu behluthana ngenqatha lebhokhwe enomniniyo.  Zine alwe kuzo uNkosi Major-General Maqoma, Ahh! Jongumsobomvu. EkaThuthula iDabi laMalinde ngo 1818, eyobukhaya, kuxabene uNdlambe noNgqika.

Ibe yekaXhoxho 1834 apho sangqisha phantsi ngowokunene umlenze iSayama ngeNtaba zoMnqwazi sisithi, uNotshe, intomb’eLawu!! ukuba kuphalazwe igazi elimhlophe, igazi lenkosana uXhoxho umninawa wakhe, zanqoza.

EkaHintsa 1835 nalapho kwabulawa ikumkani sisiphofuphofu isityhuthutyhuthu sexelegu legangxa lenkumanda yemikhosi yamangesi uSir Harry Smith (uSaqhwithi lo mandimthi jize nangesikhahlelo Ahh! Gil’imikhuba, Ahh!! Zanendlala).

EyeZembe 1846-47 apho uTsili ephuma kwesikaTola kumaNdlambe weba izembe kwivenkile eseBhofolo, ambamba amapolisa eKoloni emqhubela eRhini etyaleni lakhe bhilikidi, waxhwilwa endleleni likhaba elalingayithandanga into yokugxagxanyiswa kogxa wabo esenziwa isisulu somthetho weKoloni.

IKoloni, ngomlomo ka Colonel John Hare (ekuthiywe ngaye iFort Hare), yakhupha umthetho owawubambe busicelo wokuba ukumkani uSandile makakhulule ibanjwa elo alikhulululele emthethweni ukuze liye kujongana nezimoko zalo eRhini. Nkqi ukumkani ukuyenza loo nto. Zanqoza!!!. Akukho nxaxheba ibhadlileyo wayidlalayo ke kule imfazwe uMaqoma. “Kule imfazwe ndilele mna, andinakulibala yimfeketho yooTsili,” watsho omdala.

Elandelayo yaba yekaMlanjeni 1850-53, yile ke sizakuyichuba apha leyo, ukusuka nokuhlala kwayo, siwasenge siwacintelele onke amadabi ayo. Ndingathanda kodwa ukuba khe ndinazise kwaba bantu ndithethe ngamagama abo apha ngentla.

Ngubani uMajor-General Maqoma, uNgqika yena, uThuthula, uNdlambe, uXhoxho, uHintsa, uHarry Smith, uMlanjeni?

Bendikhe ndathetha ngokumkani uPhalo, yena uzalwa nguTshiwo (unina nguSivanxa ezalwa nodade wabo uTiso, noLanga umninawa wakhe) ozalwa nguNgconde, NguTogu, nguSikhomo, nguNgcwangu, nguTshawe unyana kaNkosiyamntu yena ongunyana kaMalangana ozalwa nguXhosa yena ozalwa nguMnguni okanye Mngoni unyana kaNtu.

Masiqaphele ke ukuba uMnguni uzele oonyana abaninzi ababa zizizwe nabo, uXhosa, uLuzumane lo kuthiwa nguZulu ngoku, uSwazi/Ngwane noNdebele.

Qaphela kwakhona ukuba kwindlu kaNkosiyamntu uTshawe ngoweQadi, kwandlunkulu kuphume uCirha ekunene kwaphuma uJwarha. Uphatha ke uTshawe ngokoyisa abakhuluwa bakhe ngomkhosi owawuxuba nesizwe samaRhudulu ooSikhomo, wamleqa uJwara waya kuzimela kulonina. Kwavela intetho, xa kusuke imfazwe, ethi: Umbhaco uwile, igwala kulonina!

UPhalo ke yena wazala uGcaleka noYonzi, noNomrhinti noRharhabe, uRharhabe wazala uMlawu noNdlambe umninawa wakhe. UMlawu wazala uNgqika Ahh!! Lwaganda, noNtibo ekunene. NgoNothonto/Menyezwa uNgqika wazibula ngamawele uMaqoma noNongwane bezalelwa eXhukwane eXesi, kwalandela uTyhali (unina ngu Heka), Xhoxho noAnta (owabanjiswa ukukhosi bukaNtibo wazala isizwe samaGwelane esibizwa ngenkabi yenkomo kaNtibo lowo) kwaza uSandile ezalwa nguSuthu inkosazana yabaThembu, yathi lonto nguye oyakuba yikumnkani, kwalandela uMatwa esiphuma kuye isaci samaXhosa esithi: “Izinto azimntakaNgqika”, noThente bazalwa nguNobutho.

UMaqoma yena waba nabafazi abalishumi, esinamagama abo nguNonxina owokuqala kuze uKatyi owokugqibela. Abantwana bakhe, nguNamba uDalasile noTini endlunkulu, ibe nguKona ekunene kulandele, Mfazwe, Marhexane, Jotelo, Nomakhaya. Uyinkosi yesizwe samaJingqi awasimisela phezu komlambo iNgcwenxa (Kat River) ngemvume kayise. UJingqi ligama lenkabi yakhe yenkomo. Ekayise uNgqika nguMbombo.

Wayethanda ke ukuzihlalela phambi kokuqala kosuku ekhangeleka ekuude ngengcinga eselula, esinga ejongise ngasempuma-langa yilento ke isikhahlelo sakhe sathi Ahh!! Jongumsobomvu.

Ezi zenzo zakhe zifuze ezo zenye ikumkani yamaXhosa uHintsa, yena wathiwa jize ngesikhahlelo esithi Ahh!! Zanzolo.

Waqala ke ukulwa njengenkumanda yomkhosi wamaXhosa phantsi kweNtaba ka Ndoda ukususela eNgcamngeni ukuya eDimbaza kwidabi laMalinde kwekaThuthula, waphuma izandla ke ukuza kuthi gaa kule kaMlanjeni.

Kwizincomo zakhe ke esokuqala kuthiwa: Isirhotsha/Isipili sikaNothonto, ngenxa yokufana nonina intombi kaNxiya oyintombelawu elixubene nobuSuthu. ISayama ngeNtaba zomNqwazi (Katberg Mountain), emfazweni.

INyok’emnyama/iZilenzi eCand’iziziba. INgwe ka Fordyce, kuba waqwenga le nkumanda yomkhosi wamangesi ibambane ngobhongwana kwintaba zomMthontsi (Waterkloof Mountains). Igama elithi Major-General akalilahlelwanga nje kuba eliphiwa oku kwenkam-nkam, alikho elinye emkhosini elingaphaya kwelo. Ukuba belikhona ngekusetyenziswe lona.

Ekulweni kwakhe namangesi ubethe oo Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel, Captain, Major-General, batshintsha-tshintshana bada baba ngamashumi mabini anesibini wabe emi yena inguye kwicala lamaXhosa enyanzelekile ukuba atshintshe ukucinga qho amangesi esiza nenkumanda entsha.

Akuphelelanga apho ke, amangesi kwisithuba seminyaka engamashumi amathathu atshintshe iirhuluneli kwada kwayeyeshumi elinambini ngelixesha besisele simthathile uyise uNgqika isifo sephepha wabe eseyinkwenkwana uSandile umnini sihlalo kwanyanzeleka ukuba kwelixesha lonke de kwakhula uSandile, abambe njengekumkani yamaXhosa-Rharhabe.

 

UNdlambe ke ngumninawa kaMlawu uyise kaKumkani uNgqika, Mlawu lowo owabulawa emfazweni kusiliwa ngomhlaba namaThembu ehamba noyise uRharhabe. Ebeselula ke uNgqika ukuba angaphatha, kwabanjiswa uyisekazi uNdlambe ngelithi uyakumnika umntwana into yakhe akuba alukile waba yindoda, akubanga njalo, wagweva eXerha okwenkunz’emfene yaseMdantsane uNdlambe, nkqi ukuphuma esihlalweni sikaNgqika. Yaba yimfazwe yobukhaya ke phakathi komRharhabe nomRharhabe. UNdlambe uzala uMdushane kuze uMqhayi, kuze uMhala, kuze uNowawe.  Eli dabi laMalinde lona lisuswa yindelelo kaNgqika ngendaba kaThuthulula.

Ngubani uThuthula?

UNdlambe, esemi eMnyameni, uye wongeza kuthotho lwabafazi bakhe imbelukazi emanzandonga, intombi esithomo sayo sipha!! ukuphakama ngathi iyadlisela. Inkangeleko yayo isondele pha komaEritria, Topiya, Somalia kuphondo lweAfrika. Imilenze ithe tsotsololo yanda ngokunyuka ukuya kusithela phesheya kwenkciyo, isimomondiya esibengezela okweguzu liphuma ekhasini, alapha amafutha eentonga zethu.

Wazala uMthunzana bafondini kwalil’iimazi, angqukuleka amadoda, zitshweda iintsana, bambombozela abafana atshikila amankazana!!

Kanti livulwe nini izulu sesitanasa neengelosi kulomhlaba kaBawo? Bribri mntanam uyagula iyeza lakho ndim, kanti nongenathenda uyasiqhuba isiLahla, nongenabhaskithi uyaya eMalikeni.

Uyawutsala umnxeba nongenamoya. Amehlo akhe lilanga lisithi ndithenge, ngamaqum-qum abuyozoyozo eyengezela ngathi athi “sondela bhuti nengubo ndafa bubuthongo”.

Uncumo alunxibayo ngathi wazuza isidanga salo kwaNokholiji phantsi kweNduli kaQili ka Qoshe. Ungathi umbeke endlini emnyama lukhanyise kuvele namabibi agqunywe phakathi etyesini. Lwangongoza uvalo lomfana oma amathe isemi intombi isabela ubizo.

Xa iguquka ibheka pha nditsho namaxhego adumba iintloko, izihlalo zimiswe kakuhle oku komcoselelo womchweli, ukuhamba ungafunga ukuba uphakathi emanzini unqakraza okwenkabi yebhokhwe emelwe yimbeleko.

Ndingathetha ndithini na ke ngala mawele ahombise isifuba sakhe qabavu qekevu gqamama phetshu ingono okwegqenge-gqenge lepesika evuthelwe ukuvunwa kanye ukutyiwa. Mandikrwele umgca phantsi ukhe wawutsiba undifakile! Ukhetha ntoni icephe elitsha nelidala? Phuma langa sikothe!!

Amaphotho esithsaba yimibedlana yamancanca ukuhambisa iminwe yesandla sayo indoda phakathi kwawo kuyithumela kwilizwe lemimoya, apho kugeleza kunkqenkqeza kuqukuqela kubaleka ubusi ubisi namanzi  eendonga. Vuma kaloku ntombi ndakukuthengela uloliwe nomzila wakhe.

Hayi sukani madoda!! Ziphi na eza nkomo bendiziphawulelwe kulomama? Bathi igama lakhe nguThuthula intombi kaMthunzana. Mna ndithi ngeliphantsi libambe butyhafa budangala liyengezela likhatshwa lolwancumo lukekeleyo lwesincwaso, Thsuthsulaah!!!

Ewe yayisitsho njalo kaloku isoprano kwesa sitibili sethu seza konsathi zaziphathwa nguTsherimani encediswa sisinqininqini sakhe esimthuthela imali yokucela iingoma (Jukebox) ekwakusithiwa ngoSphutsu. Itsho ke isoprano okanye ifesti: “Ndiyamthand’uThuthula, nob’imalayikho, ndizakumlobola ngantoni?” Abalandelayo bemi ngelithi “khelekenkce, khelekenkce, khelekenkce, khenkce, khelekenkce, khenkce, khenkce!!!”.

EsesiZulu istibili sasisithi: “Kukud’eGoli ngezinyawo…” sigqibele ngekhorasi ethi: “Thuthula, hamba Thuthula, emazweni hamba Thuthula, kudala ndihamba Thuthula ezizwe!”.

Eyakho ke izakuthi, “Isikhalo somntwana siho-ye!! Thula mntwanam. Uyaliiil-ubhabha, thula mntwanam, wen’ukhalelani. Thula mntanam, kant’ukhalelani?”

Kwakuhlwa uthi: “Masambe nono….”

Wayijonga le nto uNgqika akayithanda into yokuba induku entle kangaka iphatwe ngamaxhego wamthabatha uThuthula kuNdlambe, esebenzisa iphakathi lakhe logaga uNtlebi kulo mkhuba. UNtlebi ubemi eDikeni ngakwaSikhutshane wabizelwa komkhulu eNgcwazi wanikwa umthetho olinqweme lenkawu, wathuma uBongwe noFolisa ukuba baye kuncinza uThuthula eMnyameni komkhulu kwaNdlambe uhambo lweentsuku ezimbini nobusuku bazo. Babuya naye abamsa komkhulu uNtlebi wasusa uNgqoko ukuba amthi mviii indlebe ukumkani wahlebela omdala ukuba “ikhona la mpahla, uyakusele eyinxibela pha kum entangeni, iyakuthi ke ukuba iyakulingana, unduluke nayo,” kuliwa ngaloo nto ke ngoku.

Ebesoloko ke uNgqika emqeqesha unyana wakhe uMaqoma ukuze abe yikumkani emva kwakhe, phambili kule ngqeqesho yayiyindlela namacebo okukwazi ukulwa kuba kwakuhlaselwana zizizwe, uNgqawane, ihashe likaNgqika, naye wathatha eyakhe indima kolu qeqesho.

Ngale ntsasa ke kaOctober/eyeDwarha 1818 sekubotshelelwe ngumkhosi wamawaka mabini amadoda, waqiniswa (ukugajiswa nokuhlanjwa nokuqatshulwa) wabulala neenkunzi zenkomo zokuwundulula usiya edabini kungena indoda eyayifudula ingumNdlambe, uMprofeti uNtsikana umfo kaGabha owayengumcebisi omkulu wakomkhulu iphethe ingqayi ebhotwe phezu komlambo iTyhume, afike ayiyeke iwe aphalale onke amanzi abekuyo zithi saa iingceba zayo.

Athi kukumkani uNgqika, bendithe yinqande le mfazwe, isizwe samaXhosa sophalala ngolu hlobo, mbize abuye uMaqoma uyakufa pha.

Nangoku waphantsa wafa kwasala enkundleni amaphakathi amaninzi abalulekileyo, ooNtlebi, ooJotelo, ooNteyi ooQukwana bephethelwe imbengwana nguMdushane unyana omkhulu kaNdlambe.

Onke amazwi omprofeti awela phantsi zinkani zekumkani incediswa ngamaphakathi ogaga afana noManxoyi lo.

Ecenga uNtsikana esithi: “Kumkani, sukulwa nabantakwenu yeyona nto izakukulahla phantsi leyo.” Impendulo kaNgqika: “Siyaya emfazweni!!!” Waguqukela kuMaqoma umprofeti ngelincamayo wacebisa: “Xa nibona ngathi utshaba lunitsalela ngaphakathi kwihlelo lalo, ningalandeli nithiyelwe ngesigu esiyingozi.”

Uye waqokela ekhwaza sebekude: “Embonweni wam iintloko zenu beziphangwa ziimbovane.”

Eyona nto yayithethwa ngumprofethi yile yokuba wathi akoyiswa uNgqika kweli dabi waya kucela uncedo ku Governor Lord Charles Somerset ekomkhulu lakhe laliseBhofolo, lithanda lokuqala elasetyenziswa ngamangesi ukungena izinto zamaXhosa de bazokusigonyamela nje unanamhla.

UXhoxho ngumninawa kaMaqoma unina engemnye, wayanyaniswa kuHeka okwangunina kaTyhali. Abanye ababhali bathi uzalwa mfazi mnye noMatwa noThente. Ukanti ke uMatwa uzalwa nguNobutho iQadi likaSuthu ezalwa noThente noMacumbu. Kuthiwa ke uminyaka mithandathu ukoluka kukaMaqoma, ebenomzimba, ebudangala bunyaba ekukhuleni. Uthi uyise ngaye ngenye imini, “Khawujonge le nto, ithe dimfi phaya. Xa uyijongile wena ungathi yinkosana le? Amaphakathi am andicebisa ukuba mandimzeke unina kuba emhle, eyakundiphathela abantwana abahle, khanijonge ke le andiphathele yona ngoku, yintoni yona le?

URhubusana yena ubhala athi ngaye, “yayiyinkosi engathethiyo, yaye kanjalo ibisoyiswa msinya ngamaphakathi akuthetha, noko loo nto ithethwayo ingagqibanga kuyiqonda. Loo nto yenza ukuba ingahlonelwa kuyaphi ngamaphakathi ayo.”

UMaqoma ke yena wayengamboni ngoluhlobo lukayise uXhoxho, wamthanda kakhulu ehleli nje uyamkhusela usoloko enaye apho akhoyo. Yiyo nale ibangela ukuba kubekho imfazwe kaXhoxho 1834, okanye imfazwe eliwe ngenxa kaXhoxho phakathi kwamangesi namaXhosa, isuswa nguMaqoma emva kokuhlaselwa kukaTyhali otyala lakhe yayikukubuyela emhlabeni wakhe owawoxuthwe yiKoloni.

ULieutenant Sutton (abanye benu bathenga eSutton Square eQonce, lowo nguRev.J.G Sutton owayeyinqununu yaseDale College) uthunywa ngu Somaseti ukuba makahlasele uTyhali amthathele nenkomo zakhe. Yaqala inkathazo ngeyoMnga 12 December 1834 zanqoza, bafika belindelwe ngamabutho kaTyhali, abelungu badubula isine sabantu kwachanwa noXhoxho eghruzulwa yimbumbulu icala lentloko. Waphambana uMaqoma: Ligazi elomhlophe eli, linomvuzo nomvuka, aliphalali nje ke. “UNotshe, intomb’eLawu!!!”

Wabophelela amabutho akhe encediswa nangumkhosi wamaqhakancu bezimisele ngempindezelo, baqalisa ngokuwela umda abawubekelweyo yiKoloni bephuthuma iinkomo zabo ebezibiwe, kwaliwa, zanqoza eFort Willshire, ngeli thuba iNgqushwa yayisele ingaphakathi kumda weKoloni.

Ecinga iingxoxo zoxolo ekuvunyelwene ngazo wavuka ngobusuku umfundisi uKayser eKnap’s Hope akuva isandi sokundila komkhono wekati wathi makasiwe kuMaqoma, wamfumana kulontshinyano yehlathi wasikhixa isililo unyawontle ebuza kuMaqoma ukuba “wenzani?” Uphendula ngelithi omdala: “Ndiyimbabala, andithi sidutyulwa sizingelwa njengazo ngoku thina zinkosi, sihluthelwe isidima sethu? Nguwe wedwa na umhambi apha le  nto kucaca ukuba akuvanga ukuba kudutyulwe umntakwethu entloko, asazi ukuba ityala lakhe lithini?”

Umfundisi waqhuba nokumcenga ukuba angahlaseli, wabe esithi yena akaqali mpi, uyaphindisa kuba engenakhaya elala emaweni ngenxa kaSomaseti.

Waqhuba uMaqoma ehlupha iKoloni ehlasela ngesinyokothi enqumlisa le milambo ibisele ixuthiwe yiKoloni kusithiwa ingawelwa kuba yimida, wayiwela yena. Kulapho azuze izincomo ezithi: Yinyok’emnyam’ecand’iziziba!!!

Yimfazwe kaXhoxho ke leyo.

Ilandelwa yekaHintsa, owagetyengwa 12 May/Canzibe 1835 eNqabarha elibanjwa leKoloni kusithiwa uyakukhululwa mhla wakhupha umthetho kuzo zonke iinkosi zamaRharhabe ukuba zahlukane nokuhlasela iKoloni (besitsha zimbumbulu zikaMaqoma), okwesibini, bakumkhulula mhla bafumana 50 000 yenkomo newaka lamahashe.

Omdala wathumela umyalezo kuMaqoma ukuba zifihlwe iinkomo bangacholi naphantsi abamhlope, okwesibini “angaze abathembe abelungu”. Bamdubula ke besenza ngathi ebezama ukwesaba eluvalelweni, bakrolonqa iindlebe namazinyo entlokweni yakhe bezakuzenzela amajikazi neembasa.

UHintsa ke Ahh!! Zanzolo ebeyikumkani yamaXhosa emi kumhlaba wamaGcaleka, ebesithi amaRharhabe akuxakwa acele uncedo kuye, nakule ntsinda-badala yayiphakathi koNgqika noNdlambe wacebisa into yokuba aqeqeshwe uNgqika ngokungabi nambeko nangokulahlela isizwe ezandleni zabelungu, waza wathumela nowakhe umkhosi kwidabi laMalinde ukuze oyiswe nje uMaqoma. Kulo nto yonke ukususela apho ebengenayo enye inkumanda yomkhosi ayithembe ukudlula uMaqoma.

Kungaphelelanga emkhosini nje kuphela nakwezenkcuba-buchopho nezomthetho ebemthanda uMaqoma. Nanko emthuma ukuya kunqanda idabi phakathi kwamaGqunukhwebe kaKama nemiDushane. Intombi kaMdushane ihlolelwe ukuba yendele kuKama, ibe ngumfazi wakhe wesibini. Wayala uKama esithi ungumKrestu yena akasingeni isithembu. Isigqibo salo ntlanganiso sathi: Mna Maqoma, nyana ka Ngqika, andinawo amandla okuphikisana noThixo kaKama, ngubani na ke onokumelana noThixo kaKama, uThixo odale bonke ubukhosi obukhoyo? Adliwa ke amaGqunukhwebe ezo nkomo zokuhlaza intombi yenkosi ibuye ingazekwanga.

Yehla indaba ngenye imini amaphakathi kaHintsa aya kulanda uMaqoma ukuba alamle inguHintsa ke ngoku oyingxaki, ugxothe umkakhe uNomsa inkosazana yamaMpondo ebhotwe kuba bengavani ngoku unyana omkhulu uSarhili kufuneka olukile, akakwazi kungena engenamama. Wathetha nekumkani uMaqoma loluleka iqhina wabuya ukumkanikazi wangena umntwana esuthwini. UHintsa ngunyana kaKhawuta, ongunyana kaNgcaleka. Naliya ingcwaba lakhe phezu komlambo iGcuwa.

Oonyana bakhe nguSarhili, Lind’inxuwa, Ndima, Xhoxho, Tyelimnyama, Mjezu, Bhobhoyi, Nozwane, Ncaphayi, Luyenge nabanye. Intombi nguKoloza nothotho lwezinye.

Imfazwe kaHintsa ke iphela ngophalalo-gazi (ethnic cleansing) olunzulu kwisizwe samaRharhabe.

UMaqoma undulula abafazi abalishumi linanye kuquka nabamhlophe ukuba baye ku Major-General John Cox (ekuthiywe ngaye iFort Cox) eQonce ukuze kuvulwe iingxoxo zoxolo “kuba iinkomo zimkile, amathafa neenduli zinuka ivumba lezidumbu zemfazwe,”watsho kugeleza iinyembezi isidlele esinye.

Ngubani yena uSaqhwithi?

NguSir Harry Smith. Ufika apha eBritish Kaffiraria nge 6 January 1835 ligqala ledabi laseWaterloo. Ubekade eseKapa ephethe amajoni khona. Wanconywa kakhulu yiBhilitane ngegalelo lakhe lokubulala amaNdiya kudlwengulwa umhlaba kwidolophu iAliwal yaseIndiya. Yena uyinzalelwane yaseWhittlesea yaseNgilane. Nguye owanyathela uJongomsobomvu entanyeni eBhayi, nguye onegazi lekumkani uHintsa ezamdleni zakhe.

UMlanjeni ngumprofeti ovela ebantwini ngexa lengxokolo yembalela ka1850, uphuma kwisizwe semiQhayi kwesikaNdlambe. Unomlandeli wakhe ke umprofetikazi umama uNontetha Kwekwe pha eNgcabasa eXesi.

Ulandela ke ekhondweni lothotho lwabaprofeti babantu abathunyelwa nguQamata wesizwe samaXhosa bephethe imiyalezo yokulumkisa nokwakha isizwe.

Tanci kubo nguNtsikana umfo ka Gabha, umCirha uyise kaKobe noDukwana, owathi abantu abantsundu bophalala njengamanzi, isizwe sikaPhalo sozaliswa ziindlela zoololiwe. Wathi kuzakufika abantu abamhlophe bephethe iBhayibhile, ibhotile neqhosha elingenantunja. Kwezi zinto ze sithathe iBhayibhile yodwa. Ibhotile yona izakusiphalaza. “Ngubani na lo? nguYeye, uhamba nabani? noYise. Basphathele ntoni? Amasi. Ngendeb’enjani? Ebomvu. Bayibeka phi? Esbaya? Kwesingakanani? Kwesikhulu. Amabasele? Zizdenge zodwa!!”

Mandenze into engenziwayo nditolike isiXhosa. UYeye yirhuluneli, uyise yikumkani (King William/George). Isiselo samaXhosa yayingamasi ingenguwo umqombothi, eselwa ngendebe eyayingazange ibe bomvu ngebala, yibranti le iphethwe apha. Bayibeka phi? Kwisibaya esikhulu.

IBlanti emaXhoseni zange yangena kulemizana yethu, yangena komkhulu, buza ukumkani Ngqika Ahh!! Lwaganda kaMlawu, buza noNkosi Maqoma Ahh!! Jongumsobomvu. Iphela ke le vesi ngesilumkiso sokuba ningayiphathi. Naza nenjenjalo ke? Peeewu!!!

Waqamba iculo lenkonzo:    Ulengub’inkul’esiyambatha thina

                                                            Ulongqin’izingela imiphefumlo

                                                            Ulo Thixo omkhulu, ngosezulwini;

                                                            Ungu Wena-wena Khaka lenyaniso.

                                                            Ungu Wena-wena Nqaba yenyaniso.

                                                            Ungu Wena-wena Hlathi lenyaniso.

Abanye abaprofeti besizwe baquka noMakhanda ka Nxele, imfazwe yaseGazini phaya eRhini yaphela ebanjwa egityiselwa esiQithini. Yavela intetho ethi xa ulinde into engazukwenzeka kuthiwe “ulinde ukuza kukaNxele.”

Nalapha, bambulala abelungu baxoka ngelithi warhaxwa ezama ukubaleka. (Iyafana nale kaBiko wahlatyaniselwa ngemibuzo encinwa wagqobhoka ukhakhayi lampompoza igazi lwangcol’ungele).

Ityala lakhe kuba wabahlaza ngalemini ye22 kaApril/Tshaz’iimpuzi 1819 ehlasela emini ilanga lihlabe umhlaba ngamadoda alishumi lamawaka babaleka kuba babengalindelanga nto, babuya sebevutha ngumsindokazi wokucumza yonke into engumNdlambe. Kwaba bubutyityityi begazi kulendawo kuthiwa kuseGazini wena uyakuthi yi 1820 Settlers Monument.

UMprofeti uMhlakaza yena nguyise kaNongqawuse. Bakho neninokubazi abalandelayo, oMgijima, oomama wase Chankcele, oomaNgconde, ooShembe, ooCredo Muthwa, oomamSonandi, ooRhadebe nabanye. Masingabadwelisi apha ke aba batyalwe ngongendawo bafumaneka kulo lonke eli benemilingo nomyalezo othimlisayo.

ISAHLUKO SOKUQALA

Ukuphela kweMfazwe yeZembe.

Ngomhla we 14 December 1847 kufika irhuluneni enthsa ithunyelwa yiKoloni kumhlaba wamaRharhabe ithatha ke emva kukaRhuluneli Lieutenant Governor, Colonel John Hare owayephantsi kwesandla sika Maitland eKapa yena enikezele ulawulo ku Sir Henry Pottinger (kungenzeka ukuba uyazalana nalo wakwa Bell Pottinger inkampani yaseBhilitane esanda kubhadanywa ixhaphe amafutha kwibholo lokuthelekisa uMzantsi ngokobuhlanga ifunjathiswe yinkampani yosapho oluthile lwezinhanha zezifika-namthwalo olunkamfule urhulumente weli kwandawo, lazisikela kumanqatha obutyebi beli). Nguye lo Sir Henry Pottinger owaqhuba idabi lokugqibela leMfazwe yeZembe evuyelela amaGqunukhwebe kaPhatho Ahh!! Zwelandile uNovember wonke noDecember esenza into enye de yanikezela impi yakuthi. Iphela ke iMfazwe yeZembe ekhonkxiwe uKumkani Sandile egxothelwe elubhacweni eBhayi uMaqoma ehlala elalini yamaMfengu apho.

 

EseBhayi njalo uMaqoma urhabula ulwimi ludlula ngeempukane eziluhlaza ukuba kukho irhuluneli entsha ethunyelwe yiBhilitane ezakufika ngalo mhla ngenqanawa kwalapha kunxweme lwaseBhayi. Waphalisa ke naye ukuvukela edolophini apho ukuya kuzibonela. Uqaphela siqhu sithile segxuba labangenelile abamhlophe bexokozela phambi kwehotela iPhoenix, wasondela, enye ingalo eyibeleke ngasemva esinga-singa ngesinye isandla. Ithe irhuluneli le intsha yakumqaphela ngefestile ikumgangatho ophezulu yehla yaphuma.

Wothuka zapoqa iikawusi ngaphaya kwezihlangu omdala xa ebona kumi phambi kwakhe umbulali kaKumkani uHintsa, ebambe imihlathi waziva ethetha yedwa, “kanti iKoloni ithumele lento inguSmith ukuba ibe yirhuluneli? Azi soba ngabakabani?

Yasondela kuye incume olweHlosi naye wacinga ukuba iza ngoxolo, kungathangani rhulukutyu intshuntshe irhuluneli yonda ngoJongumsobomvu, othuke wambatsha uyise wamaJingqi uye wahlehla, gquzu!!! isiqhazolo samadlagusha ohodoshe abebebukele, suka waphinda wayibuyisela kwasesingxobeni sayo waguquka wangena ehotela, engathethanga nto ngaphandle kolo ncumo ludikayo.

Xa lithi ndithenge kwangolo suku uMaqoma ufumana isigidimi sokuba makafike kulaa hotela ehamba netoliki. Ngokwenene ke wazibona enyanzelekile ukuba aye kuba ebizwa yirhuluneli engacelwa ncam koko eyalelwa. Ekufikeni kwakhe, xa esolula isandla ngelixhawulayo elandela isiko lesintu xhakamfu yamngqula phantsi irhuluneli yamnyathela kubhongwana ngesihlangu imvimba umoya.

Xa ezama ukungathi uyalwa, rhuthu kwalaa ntshuntshe yakusasa yamkhomba ngayo yakhonkotha ngaloo mlomo usisankqange la manzwi: “Oku makube sisifundo kuwe ukuba malazi lonke ilizwe looKafile ukuba ndim iNkosi nomlawuli kulo mhlaba kunjalo nje zakuphathwa ngolu hlobo iintshaba zeKumkanikazi yamangesi.” Ibe idume kakhulu ngezenzo zobuqaba nokungachubeki le ngqukumengqe uSmith, yonke into eyenzela ebugangxeni bobuxelegu.

Esothukile owakuthi kodwa uwathandazele wawafumana amandlana okuziphendulela, uthethe ke ngelo lizwi licudisiweyo buduntsa buncwina wenjenje:

“Uyinja, kwaye uziphethe okwenja, izenzo zakho zezobunja. Le uyenzayo akuyithunywanga nguKumkanikazi uVitoliya uyazi kakuhle ukuba ndingumntwan’egazi ncakasana nje ngaye.”

Iqhuba nokusinhyala isihlangu entanyeni irhuluneli imxelele ukuba ngenxa yesigezo seeNkosi zamaXhosa kwiMfazwe yeZembe bakuhluthelwa yonke into abanayo, naloo malungelwana bebewanikwe yiKoloni kuba kukhala isihlangu sikaSmith ngoku.

Waphakama apho esahexa unyana kaNgqika lungongoza uvalo ecinga ukuba ibuyile nje inja le izakubuyela kulaa nkohlakalo yayo ka1835, apho yayifungele ukubuhlutha ibubhuqe ibuvuthulule ibubhangise buphele ubunganga bezikumnkani neenkosi kumhlaba wamaRharhabe.

Zimbini ke ngoku izihlandlo ahlaziswe kuzo esidlangalaleni ngendlela apha angazukufane ayilibale, okokuqala kukuqweqwediswa kwakhe nabantu bakhe bexheshelwa ngaphandle kumhlaba wamaJingqi eNgcwenxa ngo 1829, nale ke ngoku yokunyathelwa nguSaqhwithi entanyeni abantu nabelungu bejongile.

Sisenzo esi esahlala sihleli siyintlungu kwimbali zamaXhosa ebaliselana isizukulwana ngesizukulwana.

Lithi igqala lenkululeko yabantu, itshantliziyo elingasekhoyo  elaphela liyiNkulu-Mbuso yokuqala yeMpuma-Kapa ubawo uRaymond Mhlaba wayebaliswelwa kakhulu ngoMaqoma ekukhuleni kwakhe eBhofolo kwiminyaka yo1920, ‘Utatomkhulu wam wayede abe ngathi uzakugabha xa ethetha ngoSmith emcaphukelela lento wayesingela phantsi ubukhosi bukaMaqoma, emphatha okwento engento.’

Kungentsuku zatywala emva kwale nkquleqhu irhuluneli entsha isuse elinye kumamaphakathi kaMaqoma ilithuma kumhlaba waseFort Hare ngehashe ukuba malise umyalezo kuKona unyana omkhulu kaMaqoma owayelibambela-kumkani lo gama uyise eseselubhacweni eBhayi. Lafika ke igqala elo emva kokuphalisa iintsuku ezintathu nobusuku bazo liphethe umyalezo wokuba unyana lowo uyafunwa entlanganisweni ekhwetywa yirhuluneli leyo eQonce. “Kuloo nkomfa kohlangana zonke iinkosi zezizwe zamaXhosa kaRharhabe,” laqokela latsho.

Kuthi qatha engqondweni kaKona ukuba “thyini ndiyamnakana lo Sambhuntsuntsu kangxoway’ibotshwa wayegqugqisa ebaphethe mantsantsa ootata apha ndilikrwala ngo 1835, peewu! Kazi le nto ngaba ifuna ukuba yintoni?”

Ukanti ke lonke eli lixa lisemva kweMfazwe yeZembe bebehlelisene kakuhle neKoloni oonyana bakaMaqoma oKona noNamba, besebenzisana neArhente yeKoloni kumhlaba waseFort Hare umfo owayengene kweli ezenza umfundisi kanti ungungcothoza werhuluneli u(Rev?) Henry Calderwood. Bade bathiwa jize ngemihlambi yeenkomo ezihluthwe kuSandile yiKoloni yabanceda ke loo nto ukubuyekeza ilahleko yabo mhla ngeMfazwe yeZembe.

INKOMFA YOKUQALA YASEQONCE

Nge 23 December 1847 yangena inkomfa ebibizelwe eQonce neNkosi zama Xhosa. Abathunywa ke babemi ngulo hlobo, isizwe samaNgqika-Rharhabe sasimelwe ngukumkani  uSandile ephuma eluvalelweni, Anta, Suthu, noKona. UBhotomane noTola bemele imiDange. Kwangena uMhala uNkosi Siyolo noNkosi Siwani bemele amaNdlambe . UTshatshu wamaNtinde noNkosi Phatho Ahh!!!Zwelandile wamaGqunukhwebe.

Irhuluneli ke nayo yaphalisa isuka eBhayi isiya eQonce, ikomkhulu layo eyazakhela lona iseyinkumanda yamajoni kwiminyaka elisumi linanye ngaphambi kwezi zinto. IQonce le abantu bayathanda ukukhalaza ngelithi ishushu kakhulu apha ehlotyeni, andazi nokuba abaqapheli na ukuba isesigingqini irhangqwe zintaba. Yayikhethelwe loo nto kanye nguSmith lo kuba kwakusiliwa, wayephupha ngoMaqoma ozokuhlasela nokuba sekusezinzulwini zobusuku.

Kungoko wayefuna ukulubona utshaba lusesenkcochoyini yentaba nokuba luvele kweliphi icala ingakumbi eli laseDikeni.

Yagaleleka la nkanyamba ithe nkqo inteshana yomxhaxha ivathe unonca ka”ndayame-nhanha” (tight) wetsithakhwe yalomaxesha kucaca ukuba yayimhlophe ngokuya yayifika, phuhlu amaphambili ngaphandle. Ive ngamaquza omkosi anyuke azakuma ngedolo. Ngasentla ngujobela omhle ongulombala wolwandle apha ekudibaneni ngaphambili unemiphetho egolide ehonjiswe ngothotho lwamaqhosha asilivere esehla macala omabini, umphetho wasentanyeni ugotyelwe phezulu. Isithsaba sisidlokolo esikwambala mnye nebhatyi nalomihombiso yemingqi enomtsalane kunene.

Usondele kuzo iinkosi naloo mlomo, ethe qheke lo mazinyo akhabileyo avame ngokugqola yingxubevange yentshongo nekofu. Amabhovu amade amdaka namehlo esikhotshola (inyoka enobuhlungu) azele mome ubuthuku. Uphethe iziqwayi ezimbini wabanika waqalisa ukuphimisela ekhwaza kungekho sizathu etshayinta engemanga ndawonye ethe gaa isifuba okwehobe lojiwe, engqangwe bubugxwangu bamajoni eKoloni. Uthe: “Esinye sezo ziqwayi simele imfazwe esinye simele uxolo, khethani enisithandayo,” watsho ejinga amanqagisa engade awasule (bebezakuthi abakuthi nqanda ezo bhokhwe zimhlophe!!). Zajongana ezakuthi zasa amahlo kwezi zixhobo zala majoni zaya ngokungathi zicebiselene ukuxhumela esi soxolo isiqwayi.

Waphinda waghraghrama ngathi ufuna kuve nabaseBhilitane, “tshayelani basuke bonke abantu benu ebesithe mabangahlali kummandla ongumda phakathi kweKoloni namaXhosa, ukususela ngoku, siyawulawula wonke umhlaba ophakathi komlambo iXesi nomlambo iNciba, ngaphezu kwalo sele siwuginyile. Lo mhlaba ke ngoku uzakuba nguGunyaziwe weBritish Kaffiraria.”

Kulo mmandla ke akukho Nkosi iyakwamkela mirhumo nazinwe ezisuka ebantwini bayo, makuphele tu cwaka gqibe ukunukwa nokungcuthwa kwamagqwira kulo mmandla. Kwisizwe ngasinye kothunyelwa umkomishinala omhlophe yiKoloni ozakuba liliso layo apho.

Le ke intetho yawaqoba umqolo yawujija yawaqhawula umnqambulo onke emalungelo namandla okulawula iinkosi zabantu.

Noxa nje zazifutha ngaphakathi kwanyanzekleka ukuba ziginye nokuba kuyakrakra.

Labe lizalwa ngokutsha kwakhona iphondo leKoloni eselibizwa ngoku ngokuba yiQueen Adelaide Province. Akwalindwa kuqandusela kwankukhu lwaqala ulawulo lweKoloni, ngesiquphe.

UColonel George MacKinnon owayesanda kufika kweli wamiselwa abe ngumkomishinala oyiNtloko weBritish Kaffiraria kwabekwa abakomishinala ababini phantsi kwakhe. uCaptain John Maclean uzakujongana nezizwe zaselunxwemeni, amaGqunukhwebe namaNdlambe. Ityendyana unyana kamfundisi John Brownlee enguCharles yena wamiselwa ukulawula amaRharhabe la kaNgqika, wayesikhupha nangempumlo ke lo isiXhosa ukusithetha ukusibhala nokusitolika ehlala eMkhubiso kokwabo, kule ndawo inesikolo sabelimi ngoku.

Yagaleleka iNyhwagi, fuxe, egcwele indawo uMhlangala endaweni yayo. NgeyoMdumba/February 1848 uyavunyelwa uMaqoma ukuba makabuye elubhacweni eBhayi ukhonjwa kwilali yaseMsobomvu. Apho babekwe khona abantu bakhe besuswa kumhlaba “weKoloni”.

Zaba ne ke iinyanga ebuyile engena ephuma kumhlaba weKoloni ngokungemthetho ekhangela abantu bakhe abachithachithwe yiMfazwe yeZembe, noxa nje yayingemntu wonke oyaziyo eyona nto aphezu kwayo. Abangamthandiyo bamhleba ngokuba wayehamba asarha iCape Smoke (blanti) ezinkantini zaseBhofolo naseRhini.

Mkhulu ke noko umonakalo owenziwa yile Mfazwe nokudlengulwa komhlaba nemfuyo ngaba hodoshe. Isizwe samaJingqi isishiya singamajingi-qhiwu abantu bethe saa umfuyo ishokoxekile.

Ayelishumi linesixhenxe amawaka abalandeli bakaMaqoma ngo 1836 kodwa kufika unyaka ka 1848 sele elawula iqaqobana labantu abamawaka mabini neenkomo ezikwangako. Kwaba ngcono noko kuKumkani Sandile noxa nje naye wabetheka, usele neshumi linesihlanu lamawaka ukususela kwelinesixhenxe labantu abamkhonzayo neenkomo ezilishumi lamawaka nesiqingatha emva ko 1846.

Noxa nje bakhawuleza banikezela kulawulo lobukoloniyali abantu bakaMaqoma, amaJingqi ngawo abetheka kakhulu nangaphezu kwezizwe ezaqhubela phambili nomzabalazo wokulwa abangeneleli. Abanxanelwe igwiba babalekela kwimimandla yamaMfengu, abasenomdla wokulwa bangena kwimikhosi yezinye izizwe ezazisayibambele phezulu imfazwe.

Izihlandlo ezininzi kuJune/eyeSilimela walo nyaka uzame ukukhuphela abantu bakayise kummandla ongaphesheya kweTyhume, kweli cala lingaseBhofolo, kodwa wabethwa ebethiwe egxothelwa kwelinye icala eli ngamapolisa ekoloni kuba kaloku eli cala alinyolukeleyo besele lidliwe yikoloni.

Ezingisile njalo ukubuyela kumhlaba wakhe eNgcwenxa uJongumsobomvu wabhala isicelo sokuba ahlaliswe nabantu bakhe ngentlana kancinane kwindawo eyayiyeyakhe kanye xa udlula ubhekisa ngaseHewu. Sakhatywa esi sicelo kuba lo mhla wawujolelwe amafama amhlophe asalima efuye phaya ke nangoku. Yaqalisa inkosi ukufudumala ngumsindwana wokuzibona sele iyimbabala yolwantunge kumhlaba kayise.

Ulwamvila lolawulo lweKoloni lwakhawuleza lwathi tshitshilili kummandla iBritish Kaffiraria emva kokubhavumla kukaSaqhwithi uSmith kwinkomfa yaseQonce.

Abakomishinala awababekayo wabalandelisa ngomkhosi wokukhusela izigqibo zabo ukuze kungabikho bani uphikisana nolawulo lweKoloni. Lo mkhosi wogonyamelo wawuhleli uhleli, umawaka mabili amajoni amhlophe, exutywe nawamaqhakancu kunye namakhulu amapolisa angamaXhosa.

Phantsi kwale meko yogonyamelo amadoda amaninzi amaXhosa aphela engabaqeshwa kwidolophu ezazisaqala zabelungu ooQonce nooMonti aba. Njengokuba kwakhukuliswa onke amaRharhabe phesheya komlambo iTyhume kwakulungiselelwa ukufakwa kwabelungu njengabahlali bezi ndawo. Iilali zabo bazibiza Woburn, Auckland neJuanasberg, kwatwezwa neelali zamamfengu iDike eli lonke ukungqinga iFort Hare le kanye.

Isizwe samaXhosa sazala zindlela neeblorho neenqaba lankenteza kwakhona ilizwi likaMprofeti uNtsikana. AmaXhosa amaninzi abhenela kwizikhululo zabefundisi beLizwi apho babenikwa amakhuba nembewu nto leyo eyababekela bucala yabenza into engento abalawuli bemveli eyayingumsebenzi wabo lo eluntwini.

Ngoku amaXhosa ayehluthwe onke amandla okuzingca. Kwezolawulo ayexhomekeke kubakomishinala bakaSmith, ngomthetho bephantsi kwamapolisa eKoloni, uqoqosho lonke lusezandleni zabangeneleli amaXhosa ekhongozela iimbhuphu eziwa kwezo tafile zihlihlimayo zivuza indyebo yomhlaba wawo.

Ngokwengqiqo ayexhomekeke kwintshumayelo yabefundisi abamhlophe eyayibabonisa ubuhle bempucuko yaseNtshona ekufuneka yamkelwe njengoko isiza ingavukelwa.

Wayijonga uMaqoma le nkquleqhu wafungela ukungabuhlaziyi ubuhlobo bakhe naba befundisi lence, wabalela nabantu bakhe ukuba baqhube nokungena ezi nkonzo zilahlekisayo. Waphawula nokuba sehle saya kufika emanqineni isidima sobukhosi bemveli ingakumbi oko kwapheliswa izinto ezimbini ezazibugcinile, iinkomo zesahlulo ngenqoma, kunye neenkundla ezazinuka zigwebe amagqwirha.

Imfazwe yeZembe yaphela ngenkulu yona indlala, khumbula kaloku ikoloni xa ihlasela yayiceba elona xesha libalulekileyo ebomini noqoqosho lomXhosa, xa iinkosi zikhuphe umthetho wokuba makutyalwe amasimi okanye xa kuvunwa. Ngale mfazwe ke umkhosi wamagwangqa wawufika ubhubhise ubulale undlengule utshise namasimi ukuze abantu abaseleyo balambe baye kucela umsebenzi kubangeneleli. Alamba ke amaXhosa aphela eqala umkhuba wokuphuthuma iinkomo zawo ngaphesheya komda wamakoloniyali ngokungekho mthethweni.

Omnye wabakomishinala uBrownlee utyhola ngelithi uKona wayefundisa abalandeli bakhe ebakhuthaza ukuba mabebe iinkomo zabelungu kuba ezama ukuthandwa kuno Namba umntakwabo oyena wayezalelwe ukuba yindlalifa kaJongumsobomvu. Ngeli lixa ke yena uNamba wayesabacenga abelungu kummandla alawula kuwo.

INKOMFA YESIBINI YASEQONCE

Le nto yakhokelela uSaqhwithi Ahh!! Zanendlala Sir Harry Smith iRhuluneli ukuba akhwaze enye inkomfa nge 07 October/Canzibe 1848 apho wafika wazigxwagxusha iinkosi zamaXhosa ezishayitela ukubiwa kwenkomo zabelungu okuthande ukuxaka.

Wabhavumla engqale kukumkani etshukutshela lo mbuzo, “San Dili, cacisa, kutheni iinkomo zabelungu ziphela ngamatutu?” IKumkani uSandile yajonga kumkhuluwa wayo uMaqoma iqonda nje ukuba eli lelinye lamathuba ezaa mpendulo zakhe zingambaliyo uSaqhwithi zingamazi nokuba usisiciko sayiphi na imbiza. Walibhaqa eli qhinga umlungu wakhonkotha, “Ndithe San Dili akhange ndithi Mocomo, phendula ngokwakho.”

Zahlala ke iinkosi zizezo zishwayimbana etshayinta losambhuntsuntsu ethetha yedwa ethethela phezulu eshiya alilibeleyo ebathembisa ngohlaselo lomkhosi ukuba ubusela beenkomo zabelungu abupheliswa ziinkosi kanye ngaloo mzuzu.

Ingxelo kamkomishinala uCharles Brownlee yayingatyeki ngakumaJingqi. Wasola wona kakhulu ngobu busela kummandla aphathiswe wona. Kubhaqwa amadoda amaJingqi esiba ukutya kwezi nqaba zabelungu mihla le atyatyulwe isigwebo semivumba engamashumi amathutha zincazelane izihlalo. Waqokela watsho umkomishinala.

Aya esiya ngokuphela amathemba kuMaqoma akuqaphela ukuba luyendela ulawulo lobukoloniyali, luyabhanga ulawulo lweenkosi. Kwakungekho kwandlela yakucenga ingakumbi nje ngokuba iKoloni ithumela uSaqhwithi nje eBritish Kaffiraria ukuba ayilawule ngeli bhunguza aliphetheyo.

NgeyoMdumba ka 1949 uKona wagweba uPantsi omnye kubantu bakhe owatyholwa ngobugqwirha waza wancinwa wangcungcuthekiswa wafa. Umkomishinala uCharles Brownlee waliphanda elityala wagibisela entolongweni abo babandakanyekayo kuquka noNed Maqoma noThata igqirhakazi.

Engazange abufumane enjalo ubungqina obubambekayo bokuvalela uKona emjiva, yazicacela kuye into yokuba ikoloni ibingafekethi ngokuya ibisithi makuphele tu cwaka ukunukwa kwamagqwirha.Kwathi xa kusithela eYokwindla/March ku 1949 uMaqoma noNamba balahleka iinyanga ezintathu zonke bengabonakali kumhlaba kaRharhabe kanti basatyelele uManyawuza uNomsa indlunkulu kaHintsa nonyana wakhe uSarhili kukho macebo athile ababeye kuhlangula wona ukuze babuyele nawo ekhaya kumcimbi othile ozayo ongaziwa mntu ke phofu ulinqweme lakomkhulu. Behleli ke ezinyanga zingaka bebencina apha kumama wesizwe amaqhinga okugxotha umhlola ekhaya, lo kaloku wedolo lomlungu elihleli esifubeni samaRharhabe angakwazi nokuzonwaya.

Sele edlulile amashumi mabini eminyaka uMaqoma wamnceda uNomsa lo egxothwe ngumyeni iKumkani uHintsa lo wagwintwa nguSmith wambulala. Akucaci ke ukuba zaphela ndawoni ezi ngxoxo kodwa awazange athathe nxaxheba isesidlangalaleni amaGcaleka kwiMfazwe eyalandelayo kaMlanjeni, mhalwumbi ke uMaqoma wayebacengela ukuba mabenze olwabo uvukelo lwekoloni abavuma.

Usathwasa nje unyaka ka1850 uvula ngenkulu imbhalela eyalibharhisa latshaza laxweba kalusizi ilizwe likaRharhabe elibizwa British Kaffiraria. Ngenxa yobunzima iinkosi zaqalisa ukuphuthuma izahlulo zazo ebantwini, kaloku “inkomo yenqoma yintsengwebheka” madoda, uyisenga nje uyabheka hleze umniniyo sele elapha ukuza kuyiphuthuma, ubuyibolekiwe kakade.

Yabaqumbisa ke abantu le nto baqalisa ukuhumshela ngenkohlakalo yezi nkosi zingenalusini. Phakathi kwaloo ngxokolo uninzi lwabantu lucunukile yindlala, yimbalela nesenzo seenkosi kwabakho ngesiquphe indoda eyaba ngumprofeti ivela kwisizwe semiQhayi kwaNdlambe egama linguMlanjeni.

 

ISAHLUKO SESIBINI

……

  1. Stapleton,  Timothy, 2016,Maqoma: The Legend of a Great Xhosa Warrior, Amava Heritage Publishing
  2. Dekker, Nicholas, 2017, Maqoma’s Last War, Amava Heritage Publishing
  3. W.B  Rhubusana, 1906, Zemk’iinkomo Magwalandini, Lovedale Press
  4. Jolobe , JJR, 1970, Indyebo Yesihobe, Incwadi 2, EducumPublishers
  5. Opland,  Jeff and Mtuze, Peter, 2017, SEK Mqhayi: Iziganeko Zesizwe, Volume 4, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press
  6. Bennie G.W, 2011, Imibengo, Lovedale Press
  7. Yekela, Drucilla, 1988, The Life and Times of Kama Chungwa 1798-1875, MA Thesis, Rhodes University.
  8. Tlhapi J, 2016, Case 22654/2011 King Bangiliawe Maxhobayakhawuleza Sandile vs. President of the Republic of South Africa and six others, Pretoria Gauteng Division of Hight Court of South Africa.
  9. Benso 1981, The Republic of Ciskei: A nation in Transition, Benso
  10. Elliott, Aubrey, 19.., The Magic World of the Xhosa

 

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3 replies
    • Mpumi Bikitsha
      Mpumi Bikitsha says:

      Imnandi iyacaphukisa yonke le mbali wethu Themba Ngada. Mayisasazwe ngakumbi ke ingapheleli apha. Kudala kubhalwa ngathi ngabelungu.

      Reply

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